Tile Art Museum
The only Tile Art Museum in Turkey and in the world is found in Kütahya.It is one of the most important museums and is located in the Börekçiler Quarter, next to the Ulu Mosque.The museum is housed in the restored buildings of the mosque complex(Külliye)including the imaret and tomb house,part of a theological school ,a chapple,a library and a bath house and was opened to visitors in 1999.The original mosque was built on the order of the last Germiyan Sultan Yakup Çelebi the Second.The imaret part has a porch entrance,consisting of a central vaulted area with porches opening off it.The side porches to the south open to the small vaulted tomb where the tiled tomb of Yakup Çelebi is found.Within the museum can be found every type of ceramic including ones used architecturally,in tombs,as vases,plates,holders and household goods covering every period of production in Kütahya and İznik from the 14th century to the present day.The museum also holds the manuscript of the “First Colllective Bussiness Contract’’ which was signed between porcelain and craftsmen and workmen in July 13,1766,which is also known as the “Heavenly Fountain’’
The museum buildings share their premises with the Tile Art Museum,next to the Ulu Mosque.the building was a Muslim theological school which was build on the order of Umur Bin Savcı , a Germiyan Sultan,in 1314.The building also known as ‘’Demirkapı’’ or alternatively,’’Theological School of Vacidiye’’is constructed from stone.It is typical of Seljuk architecture,with its small rooms that open on to a courtyard and with a vaulted main eyvan ,most typical is the gate.In the museum there are many examples of art works from different periods including; Chalcolitic, Bronze Age, Hittite, Phrygian, Helenisitic, Rome, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman.One of the most important possessions of the archeology museum is the Tomb of the Amazons.The tomb was found in Çavdarhisr-Aizanoi and has a high-relief technique.On every side of the tomb there are reliefs depicting the wars between the Greeks and the Amazons.This tomb is one of the best preserved Amazon Tombs in the world.
Kossuth Museum (The Hungarian House)
The museum is housed in at 18th century near Kütahya House on Macar Street in the Börekçiler quarter.When the Independence Movement of Hungary was subdued by Austria and Russia,the Hungarian national hero Lajos Kossuth(1802-1894)took refuge in the Ottoman Empire. He, his family and 56 refugees were housed in Kütahya between the years 1850-51. His own house had two-storeys containing seven rooms and had a garden. It was opened to visitors as a museum in the rooms of the museum are exhibited Kossuth’s belongings and ethnographic works.The museum gives the flavour of life in a Mansion in Kütahya.
Opened to visitors in 2005.The Museum of Culture and Art is housed in the premises of the Kütahya Air Force Cadet Training Brigade. An old hangar in the Air Brigade was restored and turned into a museum.About 200 works of art from the Kütahya Museum have been given to the Air Brigade to exhibit, with the permission of Ministry of Culture and Tourism.These works of art include oblation stones, gravestones, columns, epitaphs and arches.Also in the museum there are paintings by Ahmet Yakupoğlu ceramics by rıfat Çini and some modern examples of ceramics.
Dumlupınar Atatürk House Museum
The site is the house that Head Commander Gazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk stayed in during the War of Independence, and it was also used as the Dumlupınar HQ. The house has been fully restored to its original state and was opened to visitors on August 30, 2003.
ANCIENT CITY of AIZANOI-AEZANI (ÇAVDARHİSAR)
The ancient city is situated southwest of Kütahya,in Çavdarhisar.The settlement dates back to 3000 BC.Aizanoi was settled on the two banks of River Rhyndakos that flowed through the region called ‘Phyrgia Epiktetus’(little Phyrgia)in ancient times.The name Aizanoi comes from the word eksouanous(eksis=hedgehog,ouanous=fox).It is understood that these animals used to be sacrified for the sake of the city.According to sources from ancient writings the city was conquered by the king of Bithynia, Prusias I, and put under the domination of the Kingdom of Pergamon with Rome it too joined Rome.the name ‘Azainon’comes from the nymph Erato,who is one of Zeus’ daughters, and Azan, who was the son of Arkas from Arkadya.We also come across the name ‘Ezeanition’on the coins from the Augustus period (27BC-14AC). Aizanoi became a wealthy city with its grain,wine and wool production.It had fame for a while as the main market of the empire,lived in the glorius age in the 2nd century and experienced many public works improvements.The city became a center of the patriarchate with the spread of Christianity and was discovered by European tourists in 1824. There are ruins of two agorae, the temple of Zeus, a stadium, a theatre, bath and gymnasium situated on both sides of the river.
Built on a dais on an area 130.5x112m.It is located 200m away from the western bank of the river and it is surrounded by colonnaded galleries.It was built to a dipteral plan with 4 Corinthian columns and 120 Ionian Columns of 8x15.In the temple under the main cella (inner shrine of a Greek or Roman temple),there are stairs that go down to underground cella.This underground cella was dedicated to the goddess of Phrygia,Meter Steunene.The temple is one of the best examples of the Ionian style in Anatolia.The acroters are especially interesting.On the west pediment,the middle acroter is decorated with the bust of goddess Kybele placed in the middle of acanthi branches and leaves.On the east pediment acroter,there is a bust of Zeus.The temple was built between the years 117-138 and has a courtyard and agora with columns in Doric style.On its front gallery walls,there are epitaphs praising Apuleius who served the Emperors Hadrian and Aizanoi.
Theatre:200m northeast of the Zeus Temple the two-storey theatre is found next to the Stadium.It has a capacity of 13.000 and a stage with a diameter of 56m.From the epitaphs on its walls,we learn that Apuleius,whose name is also to be found on the Zeus Temple and on the 4th Roman Bridge,played an important role in the construction of the theatre.
Stadiıum:This structure is attached to the theatre and has dimensions of 220x50m.Its construction started in approximately the year .D.and was not finished until approximately 250.The stadium has a capacity of 13.500,a wide-gate on the west side and a “VIP Section” where there are medallions of athlethes. There is a marble wall that seperates the stadium and the theatre.On both sides of there are reliefs depicting hunting scenes.
On the east bank of the river,there is a round structure with 16 columns,a tomb and a necropolis that belonged to the City Elders.
Stock Exchange Building:This building was used as a grain market during the first half of the century. On its walls, there are price lists of all the goods sold in markets throughout the empire;inscriptions which show the prices set by Emperor diocletian in 301 as a measure againist inflation.Amongst the interesting things to be gleaned from the price lists is that: the price of a strong slave is equal to two donkeys,a horse is equal to two slaves and that is equivalent to 30.000 dinar. This building is considered important.as it gives certain information about the architectural development and social life of the city. And it is widely known as the world’s first commodity exchange.
Colonnaded Street: This road was attached to the northeast part of the stock exchange and along the road were shops and galleries.It passes the Temple of Zeus and extends to the Holy Arena of Kybele.
Ancient Bridges: There were five bridges on the River Rhyndakos. One was made of wood and the others were stone-vaulted. Only two of them have survived to the present day.
Valley of Phyrgia
The region formed by the Kütahya-Afyonkarahisar-Eskişehir triangle used to be defined as the mountains setting for “Phrygia Epictecus”(little Phrygia). But today it is known as ‘the Valley of Phyrgia’. The region starts at the village of New Bosna, which is away to the city center, and extends to the village of Ovacık,which is away from Kütahya,along the eastern part of the province.The Northern part includes the caves of ‘Sabuncupınar, Söğüt, İnli, Sökmen, Fındık and İncik’and Ovacık Village and İnlice District are in the southern part.
The Valley of Phrygia are covered with the tufa rock of Mount Türkmen,an extinct volcano to the east of Kütahya.The valley was settled by the Phyrgians during the years 900-600 B.C.As the tufa rock of volcanoes is easily worked the Phyrgians used it to create many things by carving an inlaying.Many historical structures which were dedicated to the goddess Kybele have survived to the present day.Amongst these are:open air temples,altars,rock tombs and buildings erected for defence and shelter. Later the Romans then the Byzantines settled in the area.Of the churces and natural chapels found in this region one can stil distinguish the crosses from natural dye,meandering patterns,writing and frescos.There are also natural castles, “Deliktaş Castle” and “Penteser Castle” which were created by Phyrgians and Byzantines by carving the rock.
Although Phyrgians are indo-european in origin they soon became Anatolians.However they were influenced by both Ionian and late Hittite culture,and they were able to create an authentic Anatolian culture.Phyrgian Works of wood and weaving were in great demand in Ionian markets and their craftsmen were much copied by the Ionians.Among these works are bronze plates with handles and bronze cauldrons;stringy-hooked pins made of gold, silver and bronze renowned at the time for its advanced technique;belts,hairclips from precious metals,richly –adorned textiles and furniture decorated with geometrical patterns.Their weaving of rugs in a style known as ‘Tapates’influenced the carpet and rug design of subsequent Anatolian civilizations.
MOUND OF SEYİTÖMER
The excavation of the mound in Seyitömer town started in 1990 and has comtinued since. The first settlement in the mound satarts with Bronze Period. This area waas by the river and was surrounded by city walls. The mound became a centre for pottery made with moulds instead of hand-made ones, as seen in the early Bronze Age period. During the Hititite Period, the tumulus was surrounded by walls set above the fairly high terrace wall. In the rampart there are structures which have single or double shaped horseshoe fire places. Iron ingots and ruins of furnaces that worked with iron during the later phase of this period have also been found. The tumulus was surrounded by solid and high city walls during the Phygian period. In later periods, along stairway on the North side of the tumulus and a big structure with stairs and terrace walls on the west side was built.
Structures from the classical and Helenistic periods on the upper levek of the tumulus were found entirely excavated. In this period, the tumulus was also surrounded by solid city walls supoorted with towers. The stuructures were attached to each other. They had stone walls with big square and rectangular plans. Findings from the studies of the foundations suggest that there had been a temple on the summit of the tumulus, during the Roman Period. Since early Bronze period, the inhabitants of Seyitömer have been involved with hunting, agriculture, stockbreeding, weaving, pottery and induztrial production such as mining. Inhabitants of the tumulus used to worship the Mother Goddess Kybele. In the early Bronze Age period and together with the Roman Period they started to worship Zeus. Many figures, idols and statues of animals relating to their beliefs have been found. In the excavations parts of pots, disk crushers, a catapult stone, a piece of a pot shaped in the form of an animal, plates, incisive tools made of flint and horn, a ring made of bone, stones, abronze coin with a portrait of Athena and glass beads were found.